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    Onderwerp: Oorlogsmisdaden: Riffijnen lijden nog steeds door gevolgen Europese gifgasaanvallen

    1. #21
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      Standaard Re: Oorlogsmisdaden: Riffijnen lijden nog steeds door gevolgen Europese gifgasaanvallen

      Citaat Oorspronkelijk geplaatst door Rob Gosseling Bekijk Berichten
      Bloedschuld. Gelovigen zijn er dol op.


      .
      Rob, de slachtoffers vallen NU nog. Mensen die kanker krijgen--- zie eerder in dit draadje.
      In onze tijd. Aan het verleden kun je daadwerkelijk niks veranderen. Maar in het heden kun je WEL onrecht recht zetten.
      Zorg voor snelle diagnoses en behandelingen die beschikbaar zijn.ter plekke.




      Ik ben weg van het forum. Buiten aan de slag. Relaxed. Een groet van hier !

    2. #22
      Eric de Blois
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      Standaard Re: Oorlogsmisdaden: Riffijnen lijden nog steeds door gevolgen Europese gifgasaanvallen

      Misschien hadden ze spanjaarden al in 8ste eeuw over betere wapens moeten beschikken, dan had het niet zeven eeuwen hoeven duren de moren eruit te zetten.

    3. #23
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      Citaat Oorspronkelijk geplaatst door Rob Gosseling Bekijk Berichten
      Misschien hadden ze spanjaarden al in 8ste eeuw over betere wapens moeten beschikken, dan had het niet zeven eeuwen hoeven duren de moren eruit te zetten.
      Aan die wapens lag het niet. Maar in Spanje heerste er na de laatste koning al jaren een burgeroorlog over zijn opvolging.

      En eerlijk is eerlijk, Spanje werd door het Spaans-Arabische bestuur een voorbeeld voor de hele rest van Europa.

      Nergens in Europa kwam in er die eeuwen zo'n grote welvaartsstijging, ontwikkeling op medisch gebied en gezondheidszorg, vrijheid van godsdienst, vrijheid van kennisvergaring en verspreiding ervan en literatuur. De bibliotheek van al-Hakam de tweede in Cordoba was dan ook zo ver bekend de grootste van de hele wereld.
      Nergens was er in Europa een zo grote stedebouwkundige vooruitgang, of een zo grote agrarische ontwikkeling - zowel de technische vooruitgang door irrigatie, als door al de landbouwproducten die de Arabieren meebrachten.
      Verder zou je versteld staan als je wist hoeveel woorden uit het Arabisch - of via het Arabisch - in onze taal terecht zijn gekomen. Dat is echt een hele woordenlijst.

      Cordoba werd veruit de grootste stad van Europa, en tevens ook de beste en mooiste. Het was veel groter en veel beter dan het inmiddels zeer geslonken en grotendeels verpauperde Rome.

      Maar ja, niets is voor de eeuwigheid. Ook het kalifaat van Cordoba niet. En na de val ervan, daalde de nacht over Spanje - en begon er een gruwelijke periode van godsdienst dictatuur en jodenvervolging.
      Terwijl de Arabische kolonisatie ook Spanje grote vooruitgang en welvaart had gebracht - begon daarna ook Spanje met een wereldwijde kolonisatie die overal elders grote ellende veroorzaakte.
      'Wij zitten niet op de Westelijke Jordaanoever vanwege veiligheid of economische belangen. Wij zitten in Hebron, in Nablus, in alle nederzettingen vanwege een rabijnse messianistische ideologie. Wij willen de wereld graag doen geloven dat Israël Tel Aviv is. Dat klopt niet, oh nee. Hebron met z'n fanatieke religieuze kolonisten, is ook Israël, en hun macht groeit.' (Avraham Burg, voormalig voorzitter van het Israëlische parlement.)

    4. #24
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      100th Anniversary of the Battle of Annual: A History of Moroccan Resistance

      Today, July 22, 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Annual, in which Moroccan tribesmen defeated an army of 20,000 Spanish troops.

      Safae Daoudi Sanae Ziadi July 22, 2021 8:53 p.m.


      Moroccan rifleman hold the line in the Battle of Annual Photo: Inside Arabia

      Rabat - On the occasion of the commemoration day of the Battle of Annual on July 22, Moroccans ought to celebrate the memory of Abd El Krim El Khattabi, the heroic leader who fought against colonial expansion. The history of resistance and resilience in the face of colonialism is an essential facet of our history and should be remembered and celebrated.

      Since the signing of the treaty of Fez in 1912, which established Morocco as a French protectorate. As per the protectorate, Morocco was under the control of both France and Spain. However, Spanish presence was more felt in the northern region of the Riff, where Spain sought to broaden its influence.

      Morocco gained its independence from France in 1956. But the still unresolved question of Western Sahara and Spain’s continued presence in Ceuta and Melilla have created political rifts between Morocco and one of its former colonizers.

      The battle of Annual: a struggle against colonial oppression

      The Battle of Annual was a military confrontation between Riffian tribesmen (The Rif refers to the northern region of Morocco) and Spanish military forces. Spain suffered a humiliating defeat: around 14,000 Spanish soldiers died, including their general Sylvestre.

      The battle took place in Annual, a region in northeastern Morocco, on July 22, 1921. It was the first of many subsequent confrontations between inhabitants of Northern Morocco and Spanish colonial forces in what is referred to as the Riff War, which lasted from 1912 to 1926.

      This was a massive disaster for the Spanish military, who lost many of their human resources against unorganized tribesmen who didn't have access to advanced military equipment and the specialized training the occupier benefited from.

      Spain faced a humiliating defeat following the battle of Annual, which prompted the country to seek France's help in countering the fierce resistance of indigenous Riffian populations of Northern Morocco.

      Profoundly shaken by the defeat, Primo de Rivera, Spain's prime minister at the time, pledged that he would "wash in blood" the humiliating defeat of the Riff.

      Abdelkrim El Khattabi: A hallmark of fortitude and symbol of resistance

      Abd El Krim El Khattabi, symbolic figure of the Northern Moroccan resistance and leader of the Ait Ouriaguel tribe, led 3,000 men to confront an army of more than 20,000 Spanish troops.

      Using the tactics of guerillas and their unmatched bravery, they were able to push back against colonialism.
      Abd El Krim's aim for leading the resistance was not merely to achieve independence but also to fight against colonial encroachment and oppression of the local populations.

      Abd El Krim Al-Khattabi, a household name in 20th century Moroccan history, is a prominent revolutionary warrior of the anti-colonialist movements in the Rif region of Morocco. Known for having led the assault in Annual's battle, his heroic efforts are still praised 100 years later.

      Abd El Krim was born in 1882 in the northern village of Ajdir. He owes his wisdom to the excellent education he received while growing up. He was instructed in the zawias of Tetouan, then pursued his studies in Islamic law at the prestigious Qarawiyyin University of Fez and Spanish law at Salamanca.

      At the age of 24, he moved to the Spanish enclave of Melilla. He became a journalist for the Telegram del Rif, a cadi ("jurist"), and worked for the Spanish administration for several years. After having manifested anti-colonial sentiments, he was put behind bars for what Spanish authorities considered a crime of conscience.
      Back in his native Ajdir in 1919, defying colonial rule, he decided to free the Rif.

      This northern Moroccan region bordered by the Mediterranean was then under Spanish control, the rest of the country being placed under the French protectorate.

      What stood out about Abd El Krim is his ability to lead and unite tribes that were previously fragmented, ensuring their success in Annual against better-equipped and better trained forces.

      A well-spoken, astute strategist, and charismatic leader, he successfully managed to bring together the various Amazigh tribes to keep the lid on the region under the threat of invasion. His involvement in an independentist movement in the face of Spain’s desire to establish its dominion over Morocco grew in magnitude after his forces stunned the Spanish army in Annual.

      According to research by Mevliyar Er, Abd-El-Krim guerilla tactics have influenced some of the most revolutionary figures in world history, including Ho Chi Minh and Mao Zedong.

      Mevliyar notably argues that there is robust historical evidence that Che Guevara employed some of the guerilla tactics of the Moroccan resistance to Spain during the Cuban revolution.

      The war that opposed the Abd El Krim-led insurrection and Spanish colonial forces was asymmetrical in all aspects, making the success of the Annual Battle all the more admirable.

      Northern Morrocan’s knowledge of the region and their use of guerilla tactics, as well as their unmatchable bravery, enabled them to push back against the colonizers.

      Following his triumph in the Annual Battle, Abd El Krim proclaimed the confederated republic of the Rif tribes in 1923. A devout believer in reformist Islam and admirer of Turkey’s Mustapha Kemal Ataturk, Abdelkrim endowed the new state with democratic modern state institutions.

      Utilizing the popular uprising, the Rif republic ("Al Jumhuriya Al Rifiya") saw the light of day and was contested for apparent reasons by France and Spain. In an Interview with the Egyptian al-Manar, Abd El Krim vowed: “[We wish to] guarantee our complete freedom to determine our development and the independent direction of our affairs, the right to make treaties and to form alliances that we considered to be suitable.”

      The French feared that this initiative would inspire some of their colonies to follow suit. As a result, General Petain was sent on-site with 200 000 soldiers to “restore order” in Morocco’s Rif region. The French offensive, which lasted from 1925 to 1926, was relentless and ruthless.

      In the face of the massacre of his soldiers and the 150,000 civilians killed by mustard gas, Abdelkrim surrendered to the French army in May 1926.

      He lived in exile on the French overseas island of la Reunion between 1926 and 1947. It is believed to be the most prolonged exile imposed by France.

      Abd El Krim entered his second exile in Cairo in 1947. His victory capitulated him into international fame. During his stay in Egypt, he participated, at the political level, in the liberation of North Africa from colonial entanglements. He also received visits from illustrious figures such as Che Guevara and Ho Chi Minh-who.

      He never returned to his home country. A radical anti-colonialist, he was against the policy of negotiations and appeasement followed at the time for the independence of Morocco.

      A great man in the history of the world, not just Morocco, Abd El Krim carried a strong persona and would command attention when he walked into a room. Long neglected, his legacy has long been consigned to the margin of history. Yet, he came well ahead of his time as his ambition stretched over the whole of the Maghreb.

      Read also: Mohammed Ben Abdelkrim El Khattabi, the Forgotten Moroccan Hero

      Abd El Krim is a constant reminder of the notion of unwavering devotion to our nation's principles. He was indeed the hero of an epic tale. He will forever be the point of reference of Moroccan nationalism and an emblem of national liberation movements on the exact status of Omar al Mokhtar and Amir Abd el Kader.

      Abd El Krim legacy, relevance, and glory will indeed echo through time and shape Morocco's future as the country still navigates its way past some remnants of the French and Spanish occupation.

      For students of Moroccan and North African history, Abd El Krim will forever be remembered as the great man who braved colonial empires despite his inferior military forces.

      He died in Cairo in February 1963, at the age of 81, with the satisfaction of having seen, after the independence of Algeria in 1962, the total liberation of the Maghreb.
      'One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived'

    5. #25
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      How Spain used chemical weapons against populations during the Rif War

      In 2018, a Moroccan NGO called on Spain to acknowledge its use of toxic chemicals against local populations during the Riff War to tame the rebellion led by Abd El Krim Khattabi against Spanish occupation.

      The Rif war to push back against colonial expansionism in northern Morocco was largely successful despite the unequal standing in weaponry and numbers of Riffians and Spanish colonial forces. However, the armed conflict was also punctuated by the use of unethical warfare systems, including the use of toxic gas by the colonial powers of Spain and France.

      The Rif war shattered Spain's domination in Northern Morocco and endangered France's protectorate, which explains why the two colonial powers eventually decided to join forces.

      After the Battle of Annual, Spain asked the French to help them push back against Abdelkrim's rebellion. General Lyautey, France's colonial administrator in Morocco, was reticent at first and was not so keen on helping Spain but eventually agreed to unite France's forces with Spain against the resistance.

      As Abd El Krim's troops arrived at Taza and Fez, however, the French feared that the success of the Abdelkrim-led insurrection against Spain might backfire on them and lead to the collapse of the French Protectorate in Morocco.
      Eventually, Marechal Petain replaced Lyautey and joined his forces with Spain to eradicate the resistance in northern Morocco.

      Chlore was imported from France, Yperite and Phosgene (Mustard gas) were imported from Spain and used against local populations. According to Moroccan researcher Mustapha Bencherif, the two colonial powers united their forces to crush the rebellion through military deployments and toxic gas.

      Spain committed abhorrent atrocities during the Rif War, such as beheadings of ordinary citizens, mutilation and castration of Moroccan prisoners, and rape of women.

      On top of all this cruelty, Spain also engaged in using chemical weapons to target civilians and crush their revolution against colonial exploitation.

      In a detailed report published late last month, the magazine Gilmore Health News outlined how Spain's use of chemical weapons during the Rif war is connected to the proliferation of cancer in northern Morocco.
      More than 80% of Morocco's larynx cancer cases are found in the Riff region.”

      According to the head of the Association of Toxic gas victims (ATGV), cited in Gilmore Health News’ report, there is strong evidence that Spanish authorities' use of toxic gas was and is still responsible for the increased incidence of cancerous diseases among populations of the targeted areas.

      The Geneva Protocol stipulates that the use of chemical weapons is a grave breach of international law. The document was signed and drafted in 1925 in World War I and prohibited the use of poisonous gas in warfare, including international armed confrontations.

      Even though Spain signed the protocol that condemns the use of chemical weapons, Spanish authorities did not hesitate to use it against the indigenous Riffian population of Morocco during the "Riff War" in 1928.

      For many, such a callous display of cruelty endangered the lives of innocent people and constitutes a violation of human rights and a war crime for which Spain should be held accountable.

      Referring to the abject legacy of Spain’s use of chemical weapons in Morocco’s Rif region, Rachid Rakha, president of the World Amazigh Assembly, told Gilmore Health News: "You can't find a single-family here that doesn't have a cancer victim." Rakha has lost several of his family members to cancer, which he says can only be explained by Spain's use of chemical weapons during the colonial era.

      According to research by Sebastian Balfour and Pablo la Porte, Spain's military resorted to the use of chemical weapons in the aftermath of its humiliating defeat in the Battle of Annual. The tragic episode is referred to as "the disaster of Annual" in Spanish historiography, the unmistakable suggestion being that it constituted a hard blow to Spain's ego.

      At the end of World War I, Spain bypassed the Treaty of Versailles clauses by establishing a secret factory called la Marañosa that came to manufacture vast amounts of mustard gas.

      The suffering of the People of Northern Morocco should not be ignored because the illegal use of toxic gas by Spanish forces is still affecting populations. For many Moroccan academics, Spain must apologize for its crimes against innocent civilians and be held accountable for its human rights violations during the colonial era.

      In the light of historical evidence that suggests Spain’s responsibility in the suffering of the people of northern Morocco, there is more than ever a need for a fair investigation that would shed much-needed light on decades of colonial crimes and render historical justice to alleviate people’s suffering.
      'One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived'

    6. #26
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      Spanish media and Spain's bruised ego

      Morocco’s Rif region's resistance remains an essential chronicle of history for those who fought to liberate their country from the yoke of colonialism. It is, therefore, crucial to have an outlook on the Rif War, particularly the Annual episode, through the discourse of the press at the time.

      Morocco had seen a rise in military presence since the turn of the 20th century, while Spain was trying to ensure a replacement empire after the loss of Cuba and the Philippines.

      Behind the wicked scheme of exploiting the dubious mineral resources of Morocco, their imperialist presence was justified based on prestige, the necessity for colonies in achieving the civilizing mission, and the need to preserve North African lands.

      With the French intervention taking place in Morocco, Spain acted along the same lines more as a blind impulse than a form of common sense, exposing the insecurity of the Spanish governing elites in a new era of imperialist expansion. Moreover, the press painted a primitive freckle character when referring to Morocco's "nomadic and savage tribes."

      Nevertheless, most of the international media welcomed the Spanish resolution, except the British press that did not look favorably upon the colonial expedition. On September 25, 1859, for example, the Morning Herald published: "It is in the interest of England that the empire of Morocco should not be weakened." On the same day, the French newspaper La Patrie reported that "the cause of Spain joins the cause of civilization against barbarism."

      In Europe, the tragedy of the Spanish army in Annual in August 1921 helped to destroy the liberal democratic system in Spain and usher in a dictatorial rule by Miguel Primo de Rivera. In France, the Left agitated for the “Riff cause.” In Britain, a “Committee of Support for the Rifis” was set up.

      After the 1909 Barranco del Lobo disaster, Spain had a hard time swallowing the 1921 bitter pill of defeat. Moreover, the European press made a fuss of this atrocious defeat as if no European empire had ever suffered a failure of this kind.

      In the aftermath of the Battle of Annual, which bruised the Spanish ego by inflicting heavy losses on its soldiers, Spain set out to take revenge on the “Moors.”

      Their media and military disingenuously described Moroccans as traitors and as inflicting suffering on Spanish soldiers. On July 28, 1921, the Spanish newspaper ABC reported: “it is only up to us to correspond to the sacrifice of our heroic soldiers by uniting all Spaniards around the throne and shouting Viva España!”

      An examination of Spanish media's depiction of the reality of its military activity in Morocco to its citizens reveals that they relied on stereotyping the local populations to justify the cruelty of the occupation.

      This was especially true after Annual, which killed large numbers of Spanish soldiers. Spanish media took advantage of the situation to spin the narrative and push unwavering public support for the war against "the bloodthirsty Moors."

      This stereotyping of Moroccans to promote the ruling elites’ and the military establishment’s bellicose narrative among ordinary Spaniards eventually convinced the larger population to support their country’s military presence in Morocco. As a result, they stopped questioning the inhumane methods Spain's military deployed in Morocco, including the indiscriminate killing and torturing of innocent civilians.

      Some writings were published which, whether they denounced the incompetence of the military commanders and their responsibility in the defeat, or tried to defend their expansionist policy, had in common the generic criticism of Moroccans as primitive and uncivilized.

      The spectacular military disasters of 1909 and - more significantly - 1921 facilitated the creation of the ignorant, barbaric and fanatical Moorish Other, and with it arose a new source of legitimization of the war.

      In the widespread derogatory and vilifying discourse of the time, the enemy appeared as an inferior race: not only as an ignorant and fanatical individual, but also as unsophisticated and degenerate.

      It should be pointed out that the Spanish press contributed to sustaining the government's position in Northern Morocco in the face of a public opinion that was in fact affectionate towards the Moroccan population and admirative of the culture derived from Orientalism. But, more importantly, the battle ​​widened the chasm between the military and civil society.

      On July 26, 1921, Leon Barety, member of the Superior Council of Colonies, declared: "The victory won by the Riffians on the troops of the general Silvestre will have, unquestionably, in all the tribes still insubordinate in Morocco as well in the Spanish zone as that of the French protectorate, a very serious echo."

      As such, the history of resistance in Northern Morocco was selectively and deliberately obliterated. Instead of enlisting behind the heroic resistance in the Moroccan Rif against the brutal occupation and standing with their fellow compatriots, even symbolically, some Moroccans became the very cause of the aggravation of the strugglers' plight.

      Yet, if it had not been for resistance, Spanish colonialism would perhaps still be in effect today, and weakening the colonial enterprise off the region's natural resources would have been beyond the realms of possibility.

      Spain's problematic colonial nostalgia

      Spain still has colonial nostalgia for its inglorious occupation of northern Morocco between 1912 and 1956, where she had a hard time countering the fierce resistance of local populations.

      While one would expect that a former colonizer like Spain would apologize for its colonial crimes in Morocco, this doesn't seem to be the case.

      The informational-memory war that has been at work since independence is not about to weaken. An examination of the predominant rhetoric in Spain’s political and media class indicates that the country takes a rather odd stance regarding its colonial past. This is especially the case among sympathizers to the Popular Front Party.

      In this sense, making Spain’s obvious approach to its occupation of Morocco particularly problematic is that historical justice necessitates an honest and critical reading of one's history and acknowledgment of past mistakes. The still existing tensions between Morocco and Spain find their roots in a tense common history and old wounds that have yet to be healed.

      Conclusion

      On this occasion, we as Moroccans should honor the memory of the brave fighters that have sacrificed their lives to fight against imperialism.

      Today, Abd El Krim El Khattabi is still remembered as a heroic figure that helped push against colonial encroachment and oppression.

      The Battle of Annual, undoubtedly, remains one of the most marking episodes of Moroccan history.
      That is why this commemoration should inspire young and old people alike to learn more about the history of Morocco's struggle for independence and educate themselves about a rich history that is often understudied and neglected.



      https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/202...can-resistance



      Ongeveer 1/3 van de Riffijnse burgers hebben ze met gifgas vermoord.
      'One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived'

    7. #27
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      IPERITA

      Genre : Historique
      Réalisateur : Mohamed Bouzaggou
      Production : Taziri Production
      Durée (mn) : 115
      Pays : Maroc
      Année : 2017
      Acteurs: Ibtissam Abbassi, Hassan Ajouaou, Nomedya, Rachid Amaghtoug, Mimoun Zanoun, Mohamed Soultana, Benaissan Elmestri, Farouk Aznabet

      Ce film de 115 min retrace l'histoire de José, un militaire retraité de l'aviation espagnole qui avait assisté au bombardement et au largage de gaz moutarde sur les populations civiles lors de la guerre du Rif, ayant opposé entre 1921 et 1926 les tribus rifaines à l'armée espagnole.Soixante ans plus tard, l'ancien militaire espagnol décide de revenir sur les lieux du "crime" où il découvre une grande partie de la population infectée par des cancers.
      'One who deceives will always find those who allow themselves to be deceived'

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